## Pages

### Back to the Basics

I like to have all of my cheat-sheet type things on hand for when I need them.  For some reason I have mental blocks with sum things, such as butter.  Why they don't just put 'use one stick butter' is beyond me!  They always have to measure that in cups, and I find it difficult to remember so I just ask my mom and make her do the thinking.
So what I did her is put all of the basic measurements and conversions and such as well as substitutions for certain ingredients that you may need but not have.  I hope this helps!

Metric Conversion Guide
Weight
1 ounce  =  30 grams
2 ounces =  55 grams
3 ounces85 grams
4 ounces = 115 grams
8 ounces = 225 grams
16 ounce = 455 grams
1 pound455 grams

Measurements

1in. = 2.5 cm.
2 in. = 5.0 cm.
3 in. = 7.5 cm.
4 in. = 10.0 cm.
5 in. = 12.5 cm.
6 in. = 15.0 cm.
7 in. = 17.5 cm.
8 in. = 20.5 cm.
9 in. = 23.0 cm.
10 in. = 25.5 cm.
11 in. = 28.0 cm.
12 in. = 30.5 cm.
13 in. = 33.0 cm.

Temperatures

32°F = 0°C
212°F = 100°C
250°F = 120°C
275°F = 140°C
300°F = 150°C
325°F = 160°C
350°F = 180°C
375°F = 190°C
400°F = 200°C
425°F = 220°C
450°F = 230°C
475°F = 240°C
500°F =260°C

Conversion chart from cups, to ounces, to tablespoons, to teaspoons.  (I love this one, I use it all the time!  It's really helpful because sometimes a recipe seems like it is really good but it's all in ounce measurements instead of cups, and this little table is a life saver.)

Cup   Fluid oz.  TBSP.   Tsp.

1 C.       8 oz.    16 T.    48 tsp.
3/4 C.     6 oz.    12 T.    36 tsp.
2/3 C.     5 oz.    11 T .   32 tsp.
1/2 C.     4 oz.      8 T.    24 tsp.
1/3 C.     3 oz.      5 T.    16 tsp.
1/4 C.     2 oz.      4 T.    12 tsp.
1/8 C.     1 oz.      2 T.     6 tsp.
1/16 C.  .5 oz.      1 T.     3 tsp.

## Ingredient Equivalents

Chocolate
1 C. semisweet chocolate chips = 6 oz. semisweet chocolate pieces
1 oz. unsweetened chocolate + 1 square unsweetened chocolate

Crumbs
1 C. graham cracker crumbs =  14 graham cracker squares
1 C. finely crushed vanilla wafer crumbs = 22 vanilla wafers
1 C. chocolate wafer crumbs = 19 chocolate wafers
1 C. finely crushed gingersnap crumbs = 15 gingersnaps

Dairy
1/2 C. butter = 1 stick butter (1/4 lb.)
1 C. butter = 2 sticks butter (1/2 lb)
1-1/2 butter = 3 sticks butter 3/4 lb.)
2 C. butter = 3 sticks (1 lb.)
6 T. cream cheese = 3 oz. package of cream cheese
1 C. cream cheese = 8 oz. package of cream cheese
2 C. whipped cream = 1 C. heavy cream or 1 C. whipping cream

Fruit
1 C. sliced apple = 1 large apple
1/2 C. mashed banana = 3 medium bananas
2 C. sliced banana = 3 medium bananas
2-3 T. freshly squeeze lemon juice = 1 medium lemon
2 t. lemon zest = 1 medium lemon
1-1/2 t. lime zest = 1 medium lime
1-1/2 - 2 T. freshly squeezed lime juice = 1 medium lime
1-3/4 - 2 C. berries = 1 pint berries
3- 1/2 - 4 C. berries = 1 quart berries

## Baking Substitutions

Baking Powder: For each tsp., use 1/2 tsp. cream of tarter and 1/4 tsp. baking powder

Buttermilk: For each c., place 1 T. lemon juice or vinegar in the bottom of a measuring cup and fill with milk.  Let stand for 5 min.

Cardamom: Use equal amount of ginger.

Chocolate unsweetened: For each oz., use 3 T. unsweetened coco and 1 T. melted butter.: Use 1/2 the amount of nutmeg.

Cloves: Use double the amount of cinnamon and a little cayenne pepper.

Corn syrup: For each cup of corn syrup, substitute 1 c. sugar and 1/4 c. water to a boil and boil one min.

Egg: For one egg, substitute 2 egg whites or 2 egg yolks or 1/4 c. egg substitute.

Egg Yolk: For 2 egg yolks use, i whole egg, ( may be substituted in baking NOT in pie crusts or sauce.)

Cake Flour: For 1 cup cake flour, substitute 3/4 c. flour plus 1/4 c. corn starch.

Ginger: Use equal amount cinnamon and a pinch of cayenne pepper.

Half-and-half: For each c. of half-and-half, substitute 1T. veg. oil or melted butter and agg enough whole milk to make a cup.

Honey: For each cup, use 1-1/4 c. sugar and 1/4 c. water

Molasses: For one c., use 1/2 c. honey and 1/2 c, brown sugar, and 1/4 c. water.

Nutmeg: Use 1/2 amount of cinnamon and 1/4 amount of ginger.

Pumpkin Pie Spice: For each t., mix 1/2 t. cinnamon, 1/4 t. ginger, 1/8 t. cloves and 1/8 t. grated nutmeg.

Light Cream: For one c. light cream use,1-1/2 T. melted butter plus whole milk to equal one cup.

Lemon juice: Same amount distilled vinegar.

Whole Milk: To make one c. use 1/2 c. evaporated milk plus 1/2 c. water.

Skim Milk: To make one c. skim milk, use 1/3 c. non-fat dry milk plus 3/4 c. water.

Sour Cream: To make one cup use, 3 T. butter plus buttermilk or plain yogurt to equal one c.

Brown Sugar: Use equal amount white sugar.

Yogurt: Use came amount of butter milk.

## WARNING!!!!

These Subs. will only work in recipes. Not for everyday use.  If you don't have real yogurt for breakfast, don't make up some using this chart IT WOULD BE DISGUSTING!